Sea buckthorn(hippophae rhamnoides) is a Mongolian, Tibetan and Uighur folk traditional herbal medicine, which is rich in vitamins, sugars, amino acids, fatty acids and a variety of trace elements, flavonoids, and steroids. Sea buckthorn has anti-fatigue effects, enhancing immunity and delaying senescence. It has been used in the treatment of oral ulcers, vitamin deficiency, fever, burns, radiation ulcers and tumors for a long time. Sea buckthorn has a curative effect on cough, indigestion, abdominal pain, hops and bloated, and blood stasis. It has been widely used in food health, cosmetics, medicine and other fields. Sea buckthorn has proven to be effective in the treatment of chronic bronchitis, chronic hepatitis, reflux esophagitis and leukemia oral ulcers, and in the treatment of hematopoietic dysfunction in recent years, such as aplastic anemia, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, sea buckthorn has also been found to accelerate hematopoietic recovery in the clinical test of leukopenia.
1 Effect on the red blood cell system
Sea buckthorn is rich in vitamins, folic acid, amino acids and trace elements, which can supplement the nutrients needed for red blood cell growth. Sea buckthorn flavone can inhibit the damage of red blood cells by oxides and delay the oxidative aging of red blood cells. The mechanism of action is related to the large amount of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in sea buckthorn. The SOD content of sea buckthorn fruit is 2746 units/g, which is more than double that of ginseng leaves. SOD can protect red blood cells from free radical damage, inhibit lipid peroxidation, and prolong the life of red blood cells. Sea buckthorn is rich in antioxidants, which can directly scavenge free radicals and reduce lipid peroxidation. On the other hand, it can increase the activity of glutathione oxidase and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase two antioxidant enzymes, which enhances the body’s antioxidant capacity. In addition, sea buckthorn is rich in vitamin C, vitamin E and carotene, all of them can scavenge oxygen free radicals. In clinical trials, 5 patients with chronic aplastic anemia and 4 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome were treated with sea buckthorn oil orally. Eight patients were detached from blood transfusion after 1-2 months, and hemoglobin increased by 30 g/L or above 100 g after 3 months, it is more than 120g/L after 6 months, and the effective rate is 88.9%. The clinical result showed the red blood cell rigidity index was reduced, the deform-ability was enhanced, and the destruction and damage of red blood cells were reduced.
2 The effect on the granulocyte system
The mice with hematopoietic dysfunction were fed sea buckthorn oil. Compared with the 654-2 intraperitoneal injection group and the saline control group, the level of peripheral blood leukocytes in the sea buckthorn oil treatment group was significantly increased, and the bone marrow hyperplasia was active, the bone marrow nucleated cells also increased. In 14 patients with leukopenia, the peripheral blood leukocytes increased in different degrees after taking sea buckthorn oil, and the effective rate was 78.6%. Sea buckthorn juice was added to the hematopoietic stem cell culture system of normal human and rat, when the concentration was 2%, the growth of the cell colony of the sea buckthorn group was doubled compared with the control group, and the brightness and cell morphology of the cell growth were normal. The mechanism of sea buckthorn promoting granulocyte growth could be: sea buckthorn has the effect of calcium ion antagonist, can expand blood vessels, improve microcirculation, promote the formation of hematopoietic microenvironment, and promote hematopoiesis in cell growth, proliferation and differentiation. Sea buckthorn is rich in a variety of nutrients that promote cell growth and division, such as lycopene and vitamin E. The vitamin E content of sea buckthorn is the highest in fruits, and its essential amino acids, vitamin C and vitamin A are high, which contributes to the growth of granulocytes.
3 Effects on the platelet system and coagulation system
After taking sea buckthorn oil in 8 patients with megakaryocyte-reduced thrombocytopenic purpura, the number of platelets in peripheral blood increased, 5 of which had platelet count >100×109/L, no bleeding symptoms in 3 months, and the effective rate was 87.5%. However, sea buckthorn can inhibit platelet aggregation induced by collagen or ADP, even stronger inhibition on collagen induction, and the whole blood specific viscosity is significantly decreased, and the clotting time is prolonged. The use of sea buckthorn oil in thrombus model rabbits can delay thrombus formation, prolong plasma recalcification and prothrombin time, and reduce fibrinogen levels. After the injection of thrombus in mice, the symptoms of sea buckthorn group were less severe than the non-administered group, and the onset time of symptom was delayed, and the intravascular thrombosis was significantly reduced compared with the control group. Its role may be related to the fatty acids and steroids in sea buckthorn. Fatty acid and steroids may affect the endogenous coagulation system and promote fibrinolysis. Experiments have shown that the total flavonoids of sea buckthorn can promote the proportion of PGI_2, thereby inhibiting the aggregation of platelets and reducing the formation of thrombus.
4 The effect on the blood immune system
Sea buckthorn can enhance cell and humoral immunity and is an immunomodulator with strong immune enhancement. When the sea buckthorn juice was administered to mice, the spleen and thymus organ coefficients were slightly increased. The effect of sea buckthorn on the thymus weight of mice was higher than that on the spleen. It can enhance the reactivity and secretion of spleen cells to interleukin-2 (IL-2) and increase the activity of NK cells by adding sea buckthorn solution to the in vitro culture system. Experiments have shown that the addition of low-concentration sea buckthorn can promote lymphocyte transformation, increase the proportion of blood T lymphocytes, enhance lymphocyte activity, and counteract the immune function caused by immunosuppressants, and increase the function of hemolysin secreted by mouse spleen cells. The anti-cyclic amine phosphate partially reduces the anti-sheep erythrocyte hemolysin level, and its intensity of action increases with increasing dose. Sea buckthorn can also promote the phagocytic function of mouse macrophages, enhance the lysosomal acid phosphatase and non-specific esterase activity of macrophages, and promote the function of mononuclear phagocytic system. In mice sea buckthorn juice can increase the number of spleen antibody-producing cells and antibody titer, significantly increase the titer of anti-sheep erythrocyte antibody, increase the level of serum lysozyme and complement, and enhance the delayed hypersensitivity of mice. Sea buckthorn can regulate immune disorders and immunopathological conditions in patients suffering from cervical erosion. After treatment with sea buckthorn oil for 2-3 courses, the peripheral blood ADCC activity was significantly increased, and the cervical mucus SIgA level was significantly reduced.
5 The anti-radiation effect of sea buckthorn oil
Hematopoietic organs are the main target organs of ionizing radiation. In the nuclear radiation accident, there are many acute bone marrow radiation sickness. Leukocytes and thrombocytopenia in irradiated animals cause infection and bleeding death. After the administration of sea buckthorn juice, the 30-day survival rate of mouse in acute radiation sickness model was was increased by 30% to 35% compared with the control group, and the number of bone marrow nucleated cells was significantly increased. The micronucleus rate of polychromatic cells was reduced and the number of spleen CFU-S was increased. The pleural index, the percentage and absolute value of peripheral blood lymphocytes, the percentage of α-acetate natriuretic enzyme (ANAE) positive cells and the serum lysozyme content of the rats with radiation injury were significantly improved, and sea buckthorn can significantly increase the content and vitality of red blood cell SOD and glutathione peroxidase in the radiation-damaged rats, and can increase its ability to scavenge oxygen free radicals, thereby resulting in resisting radiation damage to the body. The mice was fed sea buckthorn seed oil after being irradiated with 5Gy 60Co-γ rays. After 11 days, the serum lectin increased, the erythrocyte rosettes appeared and increased, and the ANAE positive rate increased. The above results suggest that sea buckthorn can improve the body’s immune system and anti-free radical action, strengthening the body, resisting radiation and anti-aging.
6 The anti-leukemia effect of sea buckthorn
Sea buckthorn juice and leukemia cell strain K562 and HL-60 were cultured in vitro for 24 hours. It was found that sea buckthorn can release UdR from K562 cells and inhibit DNA synthesis of HL-60 cells. Its effect on tumor cells may be related to the effec of sea buckthorn juice on the depolymerization and inhibition synthesis of DNA synthesis. In the experiment of cell-mutation induced by intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide, in the group of sea buckthorn oil group, the number of bone marrow polychromatic cells, chromosome micronucleus rate and distortion rate were decreased compared with the control group The ratio was significantly reduced, and the effect increased with higher dose of sea buckthorn oil, and the dose-effect relationship was good. Sea buckthorn oil can prevent cell damage, reduce the incidence of cell mutation and cancer, and promote the repair of chromosomes that have been mutated. In addition, sea buckthorn regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, immunity and endocrine status through anti-oxidation to interfere with tumor initiation and progression, by selectively inhibiting the binding process of oxidase or carcinogen to DNA in foreign metabolic processes. At the initial stage, regulation is carried out to play an anti-mutation role.
In summary, sea buckthorn has the effect of promoting hematopoietic activity, enhancing cellular humoral immunity, regulating immune function and inhibiting tumor cell growth.